RESEARCHED BY MATT TRAVERSO
Insulin is a hormone produced by β-cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans and is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, and maintains a constant blood glucose level. Insulin is initially synthesized as Preprohormone with molecular mass and then is processed intracellularly to form a prohormone molecular weight, and length of 86 amino acid residues. This prohormone is deposited in granules.
Inside these beads disulfide bonds between A and B chains of insulin and C-peptide are broken, and the result is a molecule with molecular weight insulin and a length of 51 amino acid residues. Upon stimulation of cells freed equimolar amounts of insulin and C-peptide and small amounts of proinsulin and other intermediates (<5% of the normal total secreted insulin).
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Insulin – one of the most important hormones associated with the process of nutrition. It is the only physiological hormone that significantly reduces the level of blood glucose. In response to changes in concentration of certain substrates and other stimulating agents, including glucose and amino acids, insulin is involved in hepatic portal circulation. 50% of the insulin to the liver, with the remainder – into the circulation and forwarded to the target tissue then insulin binds to specific receptors present on cell surfaces and through a mechanism that is still unknown to the end facilitates the absorption of intracellular substrates and substrate utilization. This increases the intracellular concentration of lipid, protein and glycogen.
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